# 2.1.2 The Three States of Matter

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## 3 States of Matter

Matter exists in 3 states of matter, namely, solid state, liquid state and gaseous state.

### Characteristics of Matter in Solid, Liquid and Gaseous State

#### Arrangement of Particles

 Solid Particles are arranged in an orderly manner and close to one another. Liquid Particles are not arranged in order. The space between particles is moderately large. Gas The particles are very far apart and randomly arranged.
##### Movement of Particles
 Solid Particles vibrate at fixed positions. Liquid Particles move randomly and slowly and sometimes will collide against each other. Gas The particles move randomly in all directions at great speed.

#### The force of Attraction Between Particles

 Solid very strong Liquid Strong but weaker than in the solid state. Gas very weak

#### Ability to be compressed

 Solid Very difficult to be compressed because the particles are packed closely. Liquid Not easily compressed because the particles are packed quite closely. Gas Easily compressed because the particles are very far apart.

#### Heat Energy content

 Solid Lowest Energy Content Liquid Moderate energy content. Gas Highest energy content
##### Volume and Shape
 Volume Shape Solid Fixed Fixed Liquid Fixed Follows the container Gas Follows the container Fills the whole container

## Inter-conversion between the States of Matter

### Change in Heat and Kinetic Energy of Particles

1. The change in temperature will influences the kinetic energy or the speed of the motion of the particles.
2. When a substance is heated, the kinetic energy of the particles in the substance increases. This causes the particles to move or vibrate faster.
3. Likewise, when a substance is cooled, the kinetic energy of the particles in the substance decreases. This causes the particles to move or vibrate slower.
4. The kinetic energy of the particles in a substance is directly proportional to the temperature of the substance.

## Heating Curve

The graph above shows the heating curve of a substance.

## Cooling Curve

The graph above shows the cooling curve of a substance.

## Melting Point, Boiling Point and State of Matter

1. The physical state of a substance at a certain temperature and pressure depends on the values of its melting and boiling points.
2. A substance is in solid state if it exists at a temperature below its melting point.
3. A substance is in liquid state if it exists at a temperature above its melting point but below its boiling point.
4. A substance is in gaseous state if it exists at a temperature above its boiling point.